In 1997, Maverick Airways was operating code share service for Frontier with de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 STOL capable turboprops between Denver (DEN) and two destinations in Colorado: Grand Junction (GJT) and Steamboat Springs (SBS).[66] However, the service was short lived as Maverick encountered financial challenges and then ceased all flights.
On October 13, 2009, the airline unveiled a modification to its livery in commemoration of the upcoming 10th anniversary of the airline in February 2010. Besides a new tail design, the revised livery includes larger "billboard" titles extending down over the passenger windows at the front of the aircraft. The logo word 'jetBlue' will no longer be silver and blue but now a dark, navy blue.[40] 

In September 2009, JetBlue made changes to its TrueBlue program.[132] In the new program, members receive three points for every dollar spent toward a flight, excluding taxes and fees, plus an additional three points for every dollar spent on a flight if booked online directly on the JetBlue.com website. Additional points are awarded if the member uses the Barclay's issued JetBlue Mastercard credit card to purchase the flight. The price of flights in points depend on the fare of the flight in U.S. dollars. The new program launched on November 9, 2009.[133][134]
Allegiant aims primarily to serve leisure travelers, particularly those in colder northern climates, going to warm-weather tourist destinations such as Punta Gorda, Tampa Bay, Las Vegas, Orlando, Los Angeles and Phoenix.[32] It also serves smaller destinations that see few direct flights by major carriers. Many of the airline's markets, such as Peoria, Illinois, are served only by commuter service requiring a connection at an airline hub.[33] In October 2009, Allegiant had competition on just five of its 136 routes.[34]
As Republic Airways Holdings was in the process of bidding to acquire Frontier in 2009, it was also in the process of acquiring Milwaukee-based Midwest Airlines. Through the fall and winter of 2009, Republic operated its two new acquisitions as separate brands. However, to improve efficiency by better matching aircraft capacity to route demand, Republic began to intermix the fleets of the two airlines, swapping a portion of its higher-capacity planes from Frontier with its smaller-capacity planes from Midwest and vice versa. However, the move caused some confusion amongst the public, as the two brands did not offer the same amenities and did not match the amenities mentioned on the airfare. As a result, in the Spring of 2010, Frontier and Midwest Airlines announced that their brands would merge, with Frontier being the surviving brand.[33] This was a merger of brands only—no Midwest Airlines aircraft was ever operated by Frontier, as by this time, all Midwest Airlines flights were operated on its behalf by other Republic Airways Holdings subsidiaries.[citation needed]
In March 22, 2010, jetBlue turned down incentives from the City of Orlando and announced its headquarters would keep its Forest Hills office,[46][47][48][49] start leasing and using a new office in the Brewster Building in Long Island City, New York.[50][51] in Queens Plaza in Long Island City,[49] move its headquarters there in mid-2012,[52] and start a joint branding deal with New York State using the iconic I Love NY logo.[49]
Flight attendants at the carrier voted to organize their workgroup under the Transport Workers Union of America in December 2010, citing scheduling concerns among other issues in their work rules and the airline's pilots elected to vote on whether to join the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in July 2012.[54] In August 2012, the pilots voted to organize and joined the Teamsters.[55] Allegiant's chairman and CEO, Maurice J. Gallagher Jr., has been critical of the unionization of airline employees, and has stated, "Unionization is one of those things that clogs the arteries and makes you less quick and not as nimble as you need to be on top of your game... In this industry and others that are heavily unionized, you ultimately end up with bankruptcy as the primary driver."[54]
Allegiant also earns commissions by offering hotel rooms, car rentals and admission to tourist attractions on its website. It sells package vacations under the brand name Allegiant Vacations. The company has arrangements with 34 hotels in Las Vegas and 21 in the Orlando and Daytona Beach, Florida, areas. In 2008, the airline sold 400,000 hotel room nights.[42] Commissions on hotel and rental car packages are up to one-third of the airline's revenue.[40][42]
Frontier has a three-tier frequent flyer status program. The tiers are Elite 20K (earned by flying 20,000 Status Qualifying Miles [SQM] or 25 segments in a calendar year), Elite 50K (50,000 SQM or 50 segments), and Elite 100K (100,000 SQM or 100 segments). Elite benefits include free carry-on and checked bags, advance seat assignment and family seating, priority boarding, redemption fee waiver, stretch seating, Discount Den membership, and mileage multipliers.[74]
As part of its plan to stay competitive in reaction to the entry of Southwest Airlines into Denver, the company underwent a reorganization early in 2006. On April 3, 2006, Frontier created Frontier Airlines Holdings (FRNT), a holding company incorporated in Delaware to take advantage of favorable tax laws in that state. The corporate headquarters did not leave Colorado.[21]
In October 2013, Republic Airways Holdings entered into an agreement with private equity firm Indigo Partners to sell Frontier Airlines for approximately $145 million. According to Indigo, the transaction would further Frontier's evolution into an ultra-low-cost carrier.[38] In December 2013, Indigo Partners LLC, through an affiliate, completed the purchase of Frontier Airlines from Republic Airways Holdings. The airline's headquarters will remain in Denver.[46] Republic Airways Holdings subsidiary Republic Airlines no longer flies Embraer 190 aircraft on behalf of Frontier, as of January 1, 2014.
That's why I decided to use it again for our Rosarito getaway on Labor Day weekend. Found a less than fancy hotel at an amazing price of $53, taxes and breakfast included.  It was perfect for our needs, as we were only staying one night, and sleep only for a few hours at that. I ignored all the bad reviews of the hotel being dirty and unsafe, but I never imagined that so much worse awaited us. When we arrived, they told us that they were full and that there was no record of our reservation to begin with. How did that even happen? And if the hotel had been full since Friday, how did it allow me to do the reservation on Thursday? I couldn't reach them in Mexico. By the time I was able to talk to someone we were already in the United States and unable to take an alternative room. We only had one night, I didn't want to waste it looking for hotels when we had already checked two others at a way higher price. The only reason we went out there is for the amazing advertised price, the price I thought we had locked in through a reservation. But no way was I going to fall in that game of taking a more expensive room out of desperation. We just left. Drove back all the way to L.A.
On July 1, 2010 Allegiant returned to Long Beach Airport (LGB) in Long Beach, California having previously served LGB with DC-9 jets with nonstop flights to Las Vegas (LAS) and Lake Tahoe (TVL) in 2000.[22][23] The airline also intended to fly from Bellingham International Airport and Stockton several times a week; however, there is no service at present flown between these two cities although Allegiant continues to serve Stockton with flights to Las Vegas, Phoenix/Mesa and San Diego.[24] In November 2011, Allegiant closed its Long Beach facility and consolidated all Los Angeles area flights at Los Angeles International (LAX).
A November 2016 analysis by the Tampa Bay Times noted that Allegiant's planes were four times more likely to have in-flight failures than other major US airlines.[64] A 60 Minutes report by CBS News in 2018 continued to investigate the issues first raised by the Tampa Bay Times.[65] Public records cited in the investigation found that the airline had more than 100 serious mechanical incidents between January 1, 2016 and October 31, 2017, including "mid-air engine failures, smoke and fumes in the cabin, rapid descents, flight control malfunctions, hydraulic leaks and aborted takeoffs."[65] Other public records further revealed that Allegiant aircraft, on average, were nearly three and a half times more likely to have mid-air breakdowns than American, United, Delta, JetBlue and Spirit.[65]
Frontier Airlines (F9) is a Denver-based low-cost carrier. The carrier flies to about 65 destinations in the United States, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Mexico. Its fleet of planes each feature a single Economy Class cabin. However, passengers can upgrade to Select Seating, which is located toward the front of the plane, or Stretch Seating, which features more legroom. Frontier's hub is based at Denver International Airport (DEN). An additional eight airports have been designated as focus cities. The airline has a codeshare agreement with Great Lakes Airlines.
On October 13, 2009, the airline unveiled a modification to its livery in commemoration of the upcoming 10th anniversary of the airline in February 2010. Besides a new tail design, the revised livery includes larger "billboard" titles extending down over the passenger windows at the front of the aircraft. The logo word 'jetBlue' will no longer be silver and blue but now a dark, navy blue.[40] 

It prefers to use smaller/secondary airports where landing fees cost less, such as Orlando Sanford International Airport. At Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Allegiant is now the only carrier. However, since 2015, Allegiant has been growing at major airports, such as Cincinnati, Denver, Memphis, Los Angeles, Raleigh/Durham, Indianapolis, and San Antonio.
Allegiant Air has been closely monitored by the FAA due to many emergency landings and aborted takeoffs.[56] ABC interviewed a former Allegiant mechanic, who said "Dedicated steps were not being performed with maintenance manuals or even with general practices, before an aircraft is released."[57] Many of these incidents had involved Allegiant's aging MD-80 aircraft, which as of November 2018 have been replaced by newer Airbus A320 family aircraft.[58][50] 46 of the 86 aircraft have made emergency landings, all of which were on MD-80s.[59] The average age of Allegiant's MD-80 fleet was 29 years compared to less than 13 years for its Airbus fleet.[58]
In July 2016, jetBlue announced commercial flights from the United States to Cuba will commence in late August.[64][65] On August 31, 2016, JetBlue Flight 387 from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport to Abel Santamaría Airport, in Santa Clara, became the first scheduled commercial flight between the United States and Cuba in 55 years.[66] Only charter flights were allowed under previous rules, which required that passengers had to arrive more than 4 hours before the scheduled departure and often endure long lines for documentation checks, late flight arrivals, and pay high baggage fees.[67]
Frontier Airlines (F9) is a Denver-based low-cost carrier. The carrier flies to about 65 destinations in the United States, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Mexico. Its fleet of planes each feature a single Economy Class cabin. However, passengers can upgrade to Select Seating, which is located toward the front of the plane, or Stretch Seating, which features more legroom. Frontier's hub is based at Denver International Airport (DEN). An additional eight airports have been designated as focus cities. The airline has a codeshare agreement with Great Lakes Airlines.
In May 2005, the airline's holding company, Allegiant Travel, completed a private equity placement worth $39.5 million that was funded by the investment firms of ComVest and Irelandia II.[16] In November 2006, Allegiant filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission in anticipation of a planned initial public offering of its Common Stock. It raised $94.5 million in equity capital with 5.75 million shares worth $18 each.[16] It began trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the ticker symbol "ALGT" in December 2006.[16]
In May 2017, Allegiant Air took delivery of its first brand-new A320. Allegiant took delivery of ten new A320s in 2017 and is scheduled to accept two in 2018. All new aircraft will be painted in Allegiant's new livery at the time it is delivered. Older Airbus aircraft will be repainted during their C-checks.[83] The new Airbus aircraft will have fuel-efficient sharklets. The new A320s seat 186 passengers, an increase of the 177 seats that are found in the rest of the Allegiant A320 fleet. To fit the additional nine seats, Allegiant opted for the Airbus Space-Flex V2 Lavatory. [84]
On October 13, 2009, the airline unveiled a modification to its livery in commemoration of the upcoming 10th anniversary of the airline in February 2010. Besides a new tail design, the revised livery includes larger "billboard" titles extending down over the passenger windows at the front of the aircraft. The logo word 'jetBlue' will no longer be silver and blue but now a dark, navy blue.[40]
As Republic Airways Holdings was in the process of bidding to acquire Frontier in 2009, it was also in the process of acquiring Milwaukee-based Midwest Airlines. Through the fall and winter of 2009, Republic operated its two new acquisitions as separate brands. However, to improve efficiency by better matching aircraft capacity to route demand, Republic began to intermix the fleets of the two airlines, swapping a portion of its higher-capacity planes from Frontier with its smaller-capacity planes from Midwest and vice versa. However, the move caused some confusion amongst the public, as the two brands did not offer the same amenities and did not match the amenities mentioned on the airfare. As a result, in the Spring of 2010, Frontier and Midwest Airlines announced that their brands would merge, with Frontier being the surviving brand.[33] This was a merger of brands only—no Midwest Airlines aircraft was ever operated by Frontier, as by this time, all Midwest Airlines flights were operated on its behalf by other Republic Airways Holdings subsidiaries.[citation needed]

The worst! I'll never book with them again. If you have to make any changes to your itinerary, they connect you to a phone operator who can barely speak English. When i tried to add another room she would read a script before we would proceed, then before she could finish the price would increase and she had to restart, including the damn script she had to read. This happened 4 times before i told them to F-off and just cancelled my room altogether


The bankruptcy allowed Maurice J. Gallagher Jr., one of the airline's major creditors, to gain control of the business. A veteran leader of low-cost airlines, Gallagher had worked with WestAir and as CEO of ValuJet Airlines. In June 2001, Gallagher restructured Allegiant to a low-cost model, focusing on smaller markets that larger airlines did not serve with mainline aircraft. Allegiant's headquarters and operations were also moved to Las Vegas.[13]
JetBlue Technology Ventures (JTV) [137] is a wholly owned subsidiary of JetBlue that was established in February 2016.[138] JTV is the venture capital arm of JetBlue that invests in and partners with early-stage startups in the travel, hospitality, and transportation space. Its mission is to improve the end-to-end experience of travelers everywhere. As of November 2018, JTV has invested in 21 startups, including hybrid planes,[139] machine learning algorithms,[140] and ground transportation.[141] Investments range in size from $250,000 to $1 million.[142]
LIARS & SCAMMERS.  Don't trust anything.  Made a reservation for a rental car in Denver (Advantage) for a funeral trip.  After waiting in line for an hour with only 3 agents helping a mass of people, the rental agent, "Aric," offered us a Yukon XL in place of the Camry we reserved.  He said it was because we had waited in line for an hour and we were in Denver for a funeral.  He said, "I'm going to give you guys a Yukon and free gas as well."  We asked repeatedly if this would change the price because we didn't want to pay any extra.  He told us to return the vehicle empty.  He assured us more than once that this was just his gift to us and there would be no extra cost.   He also added an additional driver also at no cost, so he said.  The Yukon reeked of cigarette smoke and was very dirty but after waiting in line so long we just bought Febreeze and dealt with it ourselves.  Aric made sure to ask us for a nice survey and recommendation when we got home as well. Our reservation was for $125.95 but we were charged $438.54!!  Now wasting time fighting this. Unbelievable.

In July 2016, jetBlue announced commercial flights from the United States to Cuba will commence in late August.[64][65] On August 31, 2016, JetBlue Flight 387 from Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport to Abel Santamaría Airport, in Santa Clara, became the first scheduled commercial flight between the United States and Cuba in 55 years.[66] Only charter flights were allowed under previous rules, which required that passengers had to arrive more than 4 hours before the scheduled departure and often endure long lines for documentation checks, late flight arrivals, and pay high baggage fees.[67]


Although it does not fly to Canada, Allegiant advertises extensively there and flies from about a dozen small airports near the Canada–US border. Many of its customers at airports such as Bellingham, Washington (BLI), Niagara Falls, New York (IAG), Ogdensburg, New York (OGS), Grand Forks, North Dakota (GFK) and Plattsburgh, New York (PBG) are Canadians, who can save money by flying from U.S. airports.[35]
Allegiant also transports firefighters for the United States Forest Service as well as college basketball teams.[44] Allegiant had a contract to supply charter flights from Miami to four cities in Cuba beginning June 2009. One aircraft was committed to the contract.[44] The contract was for fixed-fee flying, meaning all the airline was required to do was provide the dry aircraft and the flight crew. The contractor was responsible for all other costs including fuel. However, Allegiant ended this service in August 2009.[47]
In May 2015, Indigo and Frontier announced the departure of David Siegel as CEO. He had already previously turned over the role of president to Barry Biffle, formerly of Spirit Airlines. Siegel was not immediately replaced. Instead, his duties were split between Biffle and Indigo chairman Bill Franke. Biffle cited operational issues in connection with Siegel's departure.[50]

On January 11, 2007, Frontier Airlines signed an 11-year service agreement with Republic Airlines. Under the agreement, Republic was to operate 17, 76-seat Embraer 170 aircraft for the former Frontier JetExpress operations. At the time the contract was canceled in April 2008, Republic Airlines operated 11 aircraft for Frontier Airlines, with the remaining six aircraft expected to join the fleet by December 2008. With the integration of Republic aircraft, the 'JetExpress' denotation was removed. Subsequent to the cessation of Horizon's services for Frontier in December 2007, all flights operated by Republic were sold and marketed as "Frontier Airlines, operated by Republic Airlines." The first market created specifically for the Embraer 170 was Louisville, Kentucky, which began on April 1, 2007. Service to Louisville was suspended in August 2008 but restarted in April 2010.[citation needed]
The worst! I'll never book with them again. If you have to make any changes to your itinerary, they connect you to a phone operator who can barely speak English. When i tried to add another room she would read a script before we would proceed, then before she could finish the price would increase and she had to restart, including the damn script she had to read. This happened 4 times before i told them to F-off and just cancelled my room altogether
That's why I decided to use it again for our Rosarito getaway on Labor Day weekend. Found a less than fancy hotel at an amazing price of $53, taxes and breakfast included.  It was perfect for our needs, as we were only staying one night, and sleep only for a few hours at that. I ignored all the bad reviews of the hotel being dirty and unsafe, but I never imagined that so much worse awaited us. When we arrived, they told us that they were full and that there was no record of our reservation to begin with. How did that even happen? And if the hotel had been full since Friday, how did it allow me to do the reservation on Thursday? I couldn't reach them in Mexico. By the time I was able to talk to someone we were already in the United States and unable to take an alternative room. We only had one night, I didn't want to waste it looking for hotels when we had already checked two others at a way higher price. The only reason we went out there is for the amazing advertised price, the price I thought we had locked in through a reservation. But no way was I going to fall in that game of taking a more expensive room out of desperation. We just left. Drove back all the way to L.A.
Frontier Airlines was incorporated on February 8, 1994, by a group that included executives of the original incarnation of Frontier Airlines in response to the void left by Continental Airlines' 1993 shutdown of its Denver (Stapleton) hub.[17] Scheduled flights began five months later in July 1994 using Boeing 737-200 jetliners on routes between Denver and four destinations in North Dakota: Bismarck, Minot, Fargo and Grand Forks. By January 1995, Frontier had expanded its route network from Denver and was serving Albuquerque, New Mexico; Billings, Montana; Bismarck, N.D.; Bozeman, Montana; El Paso, Texas; Fargo, N.D.; Great Falls, Montana; Las Vegas, Nevada; Missoula, Montana; Omaha, Nebraska; and Tucson, Arizona with 737's.[18] Like the original airline of the same name, the new Frontier operated a hub at Denver (DEN) and for the first nine years used the slogan "The Spirit of the West" which was displayed above the windows and just behind the cursive letters "Frontier" on the fuselage of their aircraft. In 1999, Frontier signed agreements to begin purchasing and leasing Airbus A318 and A319 jet aircraft and had also added Boeing 737-300 jetliners to its fleet as well. Also by September 1999, the airline was serving destinations from coast to coast in the U.S., having expanded its route network to include Atlanta (ATL); Baltimore (BWI); Bloomington/Normal, Illinois (BMI); Boston (BOS); Chicago (MDW, Midway Airport); Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW); Phoenix (PHX); Los Angeles (LAX); Minneapolis/St. Paul (MSP); New York City (LGA, LaGuardia Airport); Orlando (MCO); Portland, Oregon (PDX); Salt Lake City (SLC); San Diego (SAN); San Francisco (SFO); and Seattle (SEA), all served from its Denver hub.[19]
Allegiant also transports firefighters for the United States Forest Service as well as college basketball teams.[44] Allegiant had a contract to supply charter flights from Miami to four cities in Cuba beginning June 2009. One aircraft was committed to the contract.[44] The contract was for fixed-fee flying, meaning all the airline was required to do was provide the dry aircraft and the flight crew. The contractor was responsible for all other costs including fuel. However, Allegiant ended this service in August 2009.[47]
LIARS & SCAMMERS.  Don't trust anything.  Made a reservation for a rental car in Denver (Advantage) for a funeral trip.  After waiting in line for an hour with only 3 agents helping a mass of people, the rental agent, "Aric," offered us a Yukon XL in place of the Camry we reserved.  He said it was because we had waited in line for an hour and we were in Denver for a funeral.  He said, "I'm going to give you guys a Yukon and free gas as well."  We asked repeatedly if this would change the price because we didn't want to pay any extra.  He told us to return the vehicle empty.  He assured us more than once that this was just his gift to us and there would be no extra cost.   He also added an additional driver also at no cost, so he said.  The Yukon reeked of cigarette smoke and was very dirty but after waiting in line so long we just bought Febreeze and dealt with it ourselves.  Aric made sure to ask us for a nice survey and recommendation when we got home as well. Our reservation was for $125.95 but we were charged $438.54!!  Now wasting time fighting this. Unbelievable.

On April 10, 2008, Frontier filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in reaction to the intent of its credit card processor, First Data, to withhold significant proceeds from ticket sales.[23][better source needed] First Data decided that it would withhold 100% of the carrier's proceeds from ticket sales beginning May 1.[24] According to Frontier's press release, "This change in practice would have represented a material change to our cash forecasts and business plan. Unchecked, it would have put severe restraints on Frontier's liquidity..." Its operation continued uninterrupted, though, as Chapter 11 bankruptcy protected the corporation's assets and allowed restructuring to ensure long-term viability.[citation needed] After months of losses, Frontier Airlines reported that they made their first profit during the month of November 2008, reporting US$2.9 million in net income for the month.[25]

^ Jump up to: a b c "JetBlue 2017 Annual Report" (PDF). p. 8. Retrieved 2018-09-19. We are a predominately point-to-point system carrier, with the majority of our routes touching at least one of our six Focus Cities: New York, Boston, Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood, Orlando, Long Beach and San Juan, Puerto Rico. During 2017, over 92% of our Customers flew on nonstop itineraries.

At 19″ wide, the middle seats in the airline's Airbus 321s, A320s, and A319s are wider than the window and aisle seats and, as of July 2015 when the airline began installing them, are the widest middle seats of any airline in the U.S.[51] The A321ceo and A321neo, utilized on longer flights, features industry-standard seat pitch of 30"-32".[52] The airline uses a seat pitch of only 28″-29", the tightest seat pitch of any airline in the United States, on their A320ceo and A320neo, typically operated on shorter flights. Frontier Airlines has 28"-31" on the Airbus A319, which they are phasing out.[53][54] Main cabin seats are "pre-reclined" by the airline[51] and there are no televisions mounted at any of the seats in order to save weight.


Like Ryanair, the low-cost airline founded by the Ryan family of Ireland, who also have invested in Allegiant, the airline seeks ancillary revenue to supplement ticket revenue.[13] These ancillary fees include those for checking luggage, carrying on luggage (other than a small personal item), buying food and drinks on board, obtaining advance seat assignments, and more.[33][40][41] Allegiant CEO Maurice Gallagher said in 2009, "We collect $110 from you at the end of your trip. If I tried to charge you $110 up front, you wouldn't pay it. But if I sell you a $75 ticket and you self-select the rest, you will."[42]
In February 2012, Frontier Airlines cut five nonstop routes from Milwaukee. This move "reduced Frontier's daily departing flights out of Mitchell International from 32 to 18," or 56%. Frontier announced further layoffs in conjunction with this route change: up to 446 Milwaukee-area employees were affected by the job cuts that occurred between April 15 and April 30, 2012.[37]
In November 2012, Frontier started low-frequency service between Orlando International Airport and Trenton–Mercer Airport near Trenton, New Jersey,[40] which, at the time, had no commercial service. Frontier later expanded service several times from Trenton, and as of June 2016 services 11 destinations. Frontier currently bases three aircraft in Trenton.[citation needed] Trenton Mercer Airport lies roughly equidistant between Philadelphia International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport.[citation needed]
In July 2007, the airline partnered with 20th Century Fox's film The Simpsons Movie to become the "Official Airline of Springfield".[26] In addition a contest was held in which the grand prize would be a trip on JetBlue to Los Angeles to attend the premiere of the film. The airline's website was also redecorated with characters and their favorite jetBlue destinations and the company was taken over by the show/film's businessman villain Montgomery Burns.[27]
Frontier has a three-tier frequent flyer status program. The tiers are Elite 20K (earned by flying 20,000 Status Qualifying Miles [SQM] or 25 segments in a calendar year), Elite 50K (50,000 SQM or 50 segments), and Elite 100K (100,000 SQM or 100 segments). Elite benefits include free carry-on and checked bags, advance seat assignment and family seating, priority boarding, redemption fee waiver, stretch seating, Discount Den membership, and mileage multipliers.[74] 
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